Arnold Schwarzenegger in stable condition, after open-heart surgery

The world famous actor previously elected to undergo open-heart surgery for a congenital condition that runs in his family.

Arnold Schwarzenegger has undergone an open-heart surgery, and is in stable condition, according to his spokesperson Daniel Ketchell.

The actor and former governor of California, went to Cedars-Sinai hospital in Los Angeles on Thursday for a catheter valve replacement, but the scheduled procedure led to further complications.

On Friday, Ketchell tweeted that on Thursday, Schwarzenegger “underwent a planned procedure to replace a pulmonic valve that was originally replaced due to a congenital heart defect in 1997.”

“That 1997 replace valve was never meant to be permanent, and has outlived its life expectancy, so he chose to replace it yesterday through a less-invasive catheter valve replacement,” he said. “During that procedure, an open-heart surgery team was prepared, as they frequently are in these circumstances, in case the catheter procedure was unable to be performed.”

The 70-year-old’s pulmonic valve was “successfully replaced” and the father of five “is currently recovering from the surgery and is in stable condition,” Ketchell concluded, “We want to thank the entire medical team for their tireless efforts.”

Schwarzenegger’s family has yet to comment.

Heart surgery may be safer in the afternoon, study reports

Researchers have found that the body’s internal clock could make afternoon heart surgery safer than morning procedures.

The body’s internal clock may make heart surgery safer in the afternoon than in the morning, a new study published in The Lancet reports.

Our internal clock — also known as circadian rhythm — drives large changes in the way the body works. It is the reason we sleep at night, and it also drives certain biological changes throughout the day. In the new study, a group of researchers from the Institut Pasteur de Lille also proved that it could make the heart stronger and more able to withstand surgery during the afternoon.

In order to perform operations on the heart, doctors typically need to stop the organ. This reduces oxygen flow to the tissue and puts the heart under an enormous amount of stress.

To get an idea of how that stress is linked to time, the team looked at how complications — including heart attacks, heart failure, or death after surgery — changed from morning to afternoon to night. This showed that 54 out of 298 morning patients had adverse events, compared to just 28 out of 298 afternoon patients. In addition, patients who went into surgery during the afternoon had half the risk of complications.

While the team does not want to discourage people from having life-saving surgery, they do hope to make doctors more aware of the best times to operate.

“If we can identify patients at highest risk, they will definitely benefit from being pushed into the afternoon and that would be reasonable,” study co-author Bart Staels, a researcher at the Institut Pasteur de Lille, told BBC News.

Previous research has already shown that heart health fluctuates throughout the day. The risk of a heart attack or stroke is highest first thing in the morning, while the heart and lungs work at their peak in the afternoon.

While some people speculate that surgeons being tired in the morning is the reason for those differences, the team showed that was not the cause. Not only did they analyze DNA samples to show different genes changed throughout the day, but they also altered the activity of one of those genes in mice, which reduced the risk of death.

However, while this is compelling evidence, more research needs to be done before the link between heart surgery and time of day can be confirmed. There are many factors at play and scientists hope they can better narrow it down for future study.

“What this research suggests is that an intrinsic body clock within cells of the heart may render these cells more susceptible to injury during cardiac surgery in the morning versus the afternoon,” said Bryan Williams, chair of medicine at University College London who was not involved in the study, according to The Guardian. “This would be needed to change practice because the logistical implications of doing so would be huge and require definitive proof that there is a real benefit.”

3D-printed hyperelastic bone may be the future of reconstructive surgery

New research indicates that it the next step in reconstructive surgery.

A group of researchers has been doing research on a new artificial material called hyperelastic bone or HB. New research indicates that it is the next step in reconstructive surgery. The HB can be inserted under the skin as support for the new bone to grow on.

It can also be used to replace lost bone matter. This research has not yet been tested in humans, but it’s hoping to check on them in five years. An early test on animals has shown to be successful, with amazing results as indicated by the researchers.

The hyperelastic bone is malleable and can be easily shaped according to the patient’s need. The hyperelastic bone is mostly made from a naturally occurring mineral called hydroxyapatite, which is a form of calcium found in bone, and it’s already used in prior reconstructive surgeries.

It is mixed with a polymer to add its flexibility. The researchers then add 3D print bone graft from this favorable material, and it’s then tested in different experiments. All these theories are described in a study published today in Science Translational Medicine.

“The first time that we actually 3D printed this material, we were surprised to find that when we squeezed or deformed it, it jumped right back to its original shape,” said Ramille Shah, a study author and assistant professor of materials science.

The hyperelastic bone is cheaper to produce since it’s synthetic. If it is also mixed with the 3D printed at room temperature, it can simplify its manufacturing process making it more affordable. Finally, it’s easy to package, store, and transport, with an estimated shelf-life of around a year. Jakus said that it was ideal for developing countries since it will be on the shelf and used when needed rather than keeping it frozen all time and such facilities may not be accessible.